*English Disease = Rachitis - a weakening of the bones due to a vitamin D deficiency. Calcium, which is necessary for strong bones, cannot be absorbed without sufficient amounts of this vitamin. The bones become soft and the legs may bend under the weight of the body.
*Night blindness = not being able to see properly in the dark, caused by a vitamin A deficiency. In darkness or semi-darkness, a person who is night-blind sees nothing at all. It is a very annoying condition that can be easily remedied by taking sufficient vitamins.
*Scurvy = an extremely serious vitamin C deficiency. Bleeding takes place all over the body: the gums, joints, bone membranes and many other tissues swell. The hands and feet hurt and teeth fall out. If a person is not given vitamin C, he will die. This condition used to be known as 'sailor's disease' because many sailors suffered from scurvy on their long voyages overseas, during which no fresh fruit and vegetables were available. A less obvious form of scurvy is very common. Although probably millions of people suffer from vitamin C deficiency, it is rarely diagnosed.
*Pernicious Anaemia = is caused by a Vitamin B12 deficiencyAs a result, an abnormal growth of red blood corpuscles takes place. They grow faster, change shape and are destroyed much faster.
*Pellagra = a symptom of a Niacin (Vitamin B3) deficiency. The word comes from the Italian, where it means 'hard skin', a reference to the hard and thin skin often seen. The disease takes place throughout the body and has four characteristic symptoms: diarrhoea, inflammation of the skin, insanity and death.